Breast milk is nature’s perfect food for your baby and helps her grow and develop during her first years of life. It is also important to know that breastfeeding benefits not only your baby, but you as well. Here are some advantages of breastfeeding:Benefits of baby
Breastfeeding provides a time for you and your baby to relax together as she feeds. Establish a routine that’s comfortable to you.
Here are some items to have on hand:
As you and your baby get comfortable in your breastfeeding relationship, you may need advice from time to time. Make sure to consult your healthcare professional.How to hold your baby while nursing
As you baby’s appetite increases during growing spurts, your milk volume also increases. Typical growth spurts occur at 10 to 14 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months.Latching on
The key to successful breastfeeding starts with your baby being able to properly latch on to your breast. Follow these steps to help ensure that your baby latches on correctly and is provided with adequate breast milk:
From time to time, your baby may swallow small amounts of sir during feeding, and this may cause an uncomfortable bubble in her tummy. To relieve the baby’s discomfort, place her over your shoulder and gently pat or rub her on the backl to release the accumulated air. Try experimenting with different positions such as sitting up or across your lap.Common breastfeeding issues
Breastfeeding is the most natural way for you to give your baby the best nutrition during her first years of life, Although nature's way is the very best you may experience one or more of the following situations that sometimes occur with breastfeeding, Here are some helpful tips on what to do:Leaking Milk
Milk leaking from your breast is a normal physical reaction for breastfeeding moms right beore nursing or when your baby cries,
Vigorous sucking or improper latching on may cause sore or cracked nipples,
Tingling in your breasts may occur as your body adjusts to breastfeeding, If you experience tingling only when your baby is nursing, it's a normal sign of your body releasing milk.
This aids in the process of let-down-the release of milk in your breasts.
Your baby is not properly latched on to your breast during breastfeeding
A small hard lump may form in your breast. It may disappear on its own after a few days
Painful, hard, and swollen breasts result from the accumulation of milk as your breasts adjust to your baby’s needs.
Breastfeeding is the best way to ensure a healthy start for both you and your baby. Medical authorities encourage doctors and hospitals to assist new moms in the breastfeeding experience as soon after birth as possible. Here’s an idea of what to expect:Colostrum
Yellowish, translucent fluid your breasts secrete during the first few days of breastfeeding
Marks the change from colostrum to regular breast milk in about three days from the onset of breastfeeding
Nature’s most perfect, nutritionally balanced food for your baby’s healthy, natural growth and development
Breast milk actually changes to keep up with the baby even within the same feeding! As the baby begins a feeding, she gets the high-protein milk necessary for growth. The milk that follows has more of the fat she needs for energy and weight gainImportant Advice For Mothers
Breastfeeding provides the best nutrition and protection from illness for your baby. For most infants, breast milk is all that is needed for the first 6 months. Many mothers continue to breastfeed after 6 months and then give other foods as well. For advice on breastfeeding, consult your doctor or any health professional, or a friend or relative who has successfully breastfed. Frequent feeding is the best was to establish and maintain a good milk supply. A well balanced diet, both during pregnancy and after delivery, also helps sustain an adequate supply of breastmilk.Remember: breast milk is the best and most economical food for your baby.
The use of foods which are not intended for young babies can be harmful. Unnecessary introduction of partial bottle-feeding or other foods and drinks, will have a negative effect on breastfeeding. Therefore always consult a health professional before introducing anything other than breastmilk.Using a breast milk substitute
If a doctor or other health professional recommends an infant milk substitutes in addition to breastfeeding or ots replacement during the first 6 months, keep your family circumstances and cost in mind before deciding whether to use infant formula. You will need more than one can (475g) per week if your baby is only bottle-fed. Unboilded water, unboiled bottles or incorrect dilution can make your baby ill. Improper use of infant milk substitute and feeding bottles may have adverse implications on the health of the baby. Always follow instructions exactly. You should be aware of the difficulties in reverting to breast-feeding of infants after a period of feeding by infant milk substitute.Characteristics of breast milk
Important Notice: Mother’s milk is best for your baby. Infant food shall be introduced only after 6 upto 24 months of age.
During lactation your body uses nutrients to make breast milk first before using them for your body. A helthy diet is as important now as when you were pregnant because it must sustain both your baby’s rapid growth and your own health. Both of you need strong bones, energy, and plenty of fluids.
When planning meals, try these tips:
A well-nourished baby is a happy baby. However, after birth it may take your baby several days to adjust to breastfeeding and become an alert and lively eater. Be patient.
To awaken a sleepy baby, first change her diaper, then remove a layer of clothing or gently tickle her head or feet. Frequent feeding are best at first, even if you have to wake her every tow to three hours.
Caring for your newborns takes a lot of time and energy, and fatigue commonly contributes to breastfeeding problems. To maintain your baby's nourishment through breastfeeding, you may need to depend on help from your husband, other family members, and friends to keep up with daily chores so you can get the rest you need. When you are rested and healthy, the benefits go directly to your baby. It sometimes makes the difference between a happy baby and fussy one.Weight gain
Most babies lose some weigh in their first few days but regain it within a week or two. Weight gains is a good indicator of whether your baby’s getting enough to eat:
If at any time you are concerned abouth your milk production or your baby’s weight, contact your doctor for advice.Did you know?
Typical nursing time is about 10 minutes on each breast, but don’t set a time limit. Every baby is different - some eat quickly, others take their time. Most babies feed every 2 to 3 hours.
Babies grow in unique ways: The baby who sits up weeks before her peers might be one of the last to learn how to crawl. Or the 18-month-old who's still communicating with grunts and gestures suddenly bursts forth with prepositional phrases at 2 years. That's why we created this series of developmental guides.
Since babies aren't identical — thank goodness! — the guides allow for variations in stages of development. Use them to gain insight into what you're observing in your baby today and to preview what you can look forward to in the months ahead.
To know more about vaccinations click here
A simple vest, cloth nappies or diapers and socks may be required. In cold climate thicker woollen knits maybe required. Additional clothes may be necessary in extremely cold conditions when baby is small and weak.
The baby’s clothes should be made of natural fabric (cotton or wool). Avoid synthetic stuff
Must pass urine within 48 hours of birth. Normal baby may pass urine every half an hour or only 4-5 times a day during the first few weeks of life. Some babies may cry before passing urine due to discomfort of a full bladder.Normal stool pattern of neonates
Passes the first stool within 24 hours. The stools are black and tar-like in appearance during the first 2 or 3 days. For the next 1 to 2 days the stools are greenish in color. Later, the stools in a breast fed baby are golden yellow and semiloose in consistency. May pass small amount of stools every time there is passage of wind or soon after every feed. Frequency may be as much as 8-12 stools per day or even more. As long as the stools are not watery, do not contain blood or mucus, the baby is gaining weight and is not otherwise unwell, no treatment is required.
Sometimes newborn babies may pass stools once in 3-4 days. If stools are of normal consistency and appearance, usually there is no cause of concern.
Hiccups and sneezing are common and normalWhen should the umbilical stump fall? What care we should take for umbilical cord?
Usually falls anytime between 1 to 2 weeks after birth. Sometimes there is a minimal ooze of blood or secretions, it is normal. Keep this area as clean and dry as possible. Do not cover it with the diaper. Keep the area of umbilical stump clean with spirit.Why does a baby vomit after feeding?
All babies throw up some amount of curdled milk soon after feeds. Swallowed air is expelled out of the stomach along with the ingested milk. Good burping after each feed will care of this problem.Is enlargement of baby’s breast a normal phenomenon?
It occurs due to transfer of hormones from the mother to baby through the placenta. Avoid local massage and fomentation. Never try to express the milk. The engorgement spontaneously disappears.Why does bleeding from vagina or sometimes a white discharge occur after delivery?
Menstrual issues like Vaginal bleeding may occur in some female infant after 3-5 days of birth. The bleeding is mild and lasts for 2-4 days. It does not need any specific treatment except local cleaning. Similarly whitish discharge is from the cervical canal due to withdrawal of hormones.What is a Cradle cap?
Yellow, oily patches of scaling on your infant’s scalp, is a form of seborrheic dermatitis, also known as cradle cap. It affects many infants from about two weeks to six months of age.
Use a mild baby shampoo regularly. You can very gently remove any loose scales with your fingertip or with a soft baby brush. Do not scrub the area vigorously or try to remove any resistant scales. To loosen, you can apply olive oil or baby oil and allow soaking into the scalp before shampooing. After they are removed do not use oil on the scalp.Why should we Burp?
In addition to sucking milk, a baby also tends to swallow air. Excess air swallowed by him during his feed, especially while drinking breast milk, is released.
Lay him upright against your shoulder (tummy against your chest), while gently patting him or rubbing his back.Sometimes why does my baby's diaper contains an orange red streak with urine?
It is not uncommon to have urate crystals in the urine, which have an orange or red, brick dust color, in an infant’s diaper. This is normal.Should I be worried about blue spots on the buttocks?
These are called Mongolian spots. These spots are flat blue or gray birthmarks on a newborn’s body.
Although most commonly located on a baby’s lower back and buttocks, they can also occur on other areas of their body. They often fade as a child gets older.What causes Red pimples on my baby's face?
Baby acne is a common occurrence. Babies usually get whiteheads, blackheads, and pustles on their nose, scalp, cheeks and forehead. Their skin may also appear red and rough. No treatment is usually required as they are self-limiting in 6 months. Vigorous washing and scrubbing and using moisturizers and other creams and lotions, can make baby acne worse. Gentle cleansing with water alone, or a mild soap, is usually the best treatment.When does descent of testes occur in male babies?
3 to 5 percent of male infants have an undescended testicle when they are born. Many of these will descend on their own by the time a baby is three months old, but after that, there is little chance that they will. This needs to be evaluated by your pediatrician.What is Neonatal jaundice?
Babies develop yellow tinge over the face and upper part of the trunk starting on day 2nd and 3rd of life. It spontaneously disappears in 10-14 days. If the yellowness appears on the first day itself, or involves the legs, palms or soles, it requires attention. Consult your pediatrician immediately. Phototherapy is the available treatment. In extreme cases blood exchange might be required. Adequate feeding is the only way by which its severity can be decreased. Sun bathing has no role in treatment of neonatal jaundice.Which is the best position for sleeping for infants?
All infants should be put on the back while sleeping to prevent the risk of choking. Pillows should not be used. Mattress should be firm and not soft. However, parents should encourage tummy time when the baby is awake and under continuous observation.What is a normal sleeping pattern for newborn babies?
Babies sleep an average of 16 hours a day. Sleeping patterns will evolve only after the child in one year old. It is normal for a baby to stay awake at nights and sleep more during daytime for initial couple of months. It’s perfectly okay to start the fan or even the AC if it is too hotWhy is an intramuscular injection of vitamin given at birth?
Vitamin K is administered within two hours of life to each baby to prevent bleeding disorders. It is given universally and is harmless.How often should the baby be feed?
Give feeds on a semi-demand schedule. It means that the feeds are offered as many times as demanded by the baby. Baby should be put on the breast if more that 3-4 hours have elapsed since the last feed.
If there is enough mother's milk, there is absolutely no need for any kind of top feed for a normal full term babyWhat is the best way to bathe a baby?
There is no need to vigorously remove the whitish substance called vernix on the baby's skin immediately after birth as this forms a protective coating for the baby. For first one or two days, only sponging is required. Take cotton or soft cloth and rinse it in lukewarm water. Please ask your pediatrician about choice of soap.What is the best way to massage a baby?
Massage helps the baby to relax and stimulates him. Coconut, olive or any vegetable oil can be used. Avoid mustard oil as it is irritating. After the bath, it is advisable to use some baby oil or moisturizer.What is the soft spot on the top of my baby's head?
This is because the bones of the skull have not joined completely. It is called Fontanelle and will unite gradually, by the time your baby is 9 to 18 months old.What is Colic?
It is because of swallowed air during feeds and inadequate burping. The air passes from the stomach into the intestine, giving rise to pain and discomfort. This results in colic. For relief, hold the baby in the ‘burping’ position. Do not give any kind of medication (including gripe water) until you consult your doctor.How do I care for my baby?
Talking and touching your baby helps in bonding. The newborn’s fingernails should be trimmed/filed after cleaning with spirit about once a week, and this toenails once a month, to prevent him from scratching himself and others. Depending on the climate, open a few windows in the room or take the baby for a small stroll. However, avoid taking the child to a crowded place. Do not give or allow anyone to give the baby any drinks from outside. Also, avoid travelling with the child for at least three months.Why do some babies have a persistent flow of tears from their eyes?
Gently massage over the inner angle of the eye near its junction with the nose two to three times a day, this helps in opening of blockage of a duct connecting the nose and eyes. If the problem persists please consult an Eye Specialist.What is the normal body temperature in babies?
It ranges from 36.5 degree C to 38 degree C. The bulb of thermometer should be placed vertically in axilla, so that it is between arm and chest wall. Keep the thermometer for at least 3 minutes. There is no need to add 1 degree C in this temperature. Never place thermometer in the mouth of a baby.What is the optimal room temperature for babies?
The mother should feel slight warmth but not discomfort. Heater/blower/air conditioner can be switched on, with keeping in mind that the room should be comfortably warm for parents. If room thermometer is available, environmental temperature around 26 degree C is advisable for term, healthy neonates.How much water can I give to my baby?
Breast milk contains 97% water and it is sufficient for babies. No water is required till 6 months of age.What is the expected weight gain in babies?
Neonates lost 5-10 % of birth weight during first week of life and regain their birth weight by 7-10 days. Afterwards they gain approximately 25-30 grams per day that means near about 900g in one month till one month. Their weight is doubled by 5 months of age and by one year it’s three times of birth weight.What is the role of vitamins and tonics for newborn babies?
Routine supplementation of babies with vitamins and tonics is unnecessary except for special circumstances e.g.premature or low birth weight babies (less than 1.8 kg birth weight)
Start at approx. 6 month, if the child is exclusively breastfeeding till that time, but one could start anytime between 4-6 months if not predominantly breastfeeding
Start with one food per week and keep giving the same food for a week so that the baby develops the taste for food. After one week if he likes, continue the food and add a new one and if he does not then discontinue and add a new one.
Start with 3-4 teaspoons and gradually build to 8-10 tsp by end of one weekFrequency of feeding
4-6 months – 1-2 times, 6-8 months – 2-3 times, 8-10 months – 3-4 times, 10-12 months 4-5 times a day cereal based diet and milk should reduce to 2-3 times per day
Things which need to be avoided – cow's milk as a staple diet, salt, honey which should be given after one year of age
Since the woman goes through the birthing process it is only natural that the man feels left out. Take the initiative to involve the father through all stages of the baby so that he feels involved and close instead of left-out and neglected. It will also help the mother get some much needed rest and relaxation to let the father help out in taking care of the baby.
The father of the new born should also be considerate about the fact that the woman has gone through several emotional and physical changes and needs all the time and help to re-coop.
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