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Baby Care


Breastfeeding

Benefits of breastfeeding

Breast milk is nature’s perfect food for your baby and helps her grow and develop during her first years of life. It is also important to know that breastfeeding benefits not only your baby, but you as well. Here are some advantages of breastfeeding:

Benefits of baby

  • Breast milk is easy for the baby to digest.
  • Breast milk helps the baby avoid early food allergies
  • Breast milk boosts the baby’s immunity to childhood disease and forms a protective infection-fighting environment for her digestive system.
  • Breast milk reduces the risk of ear infections, allergies, and diarrhoea.
photos of women breastfeeding

Benefits of Mom

  • Breastfeeding simulates oxytocin, the hormone that causes your uterus to contract and returnto normal size.
  • Breastfeeding helps you return to your pre-pregnancy weight by burning extra calories andlowering fat stores.
  • Breastfeeding aids in reducing risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and osteoporosis.
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Basics of breastfeeding

Breastfeeding provides a time for you and your baby to relax together as she feeds. Establish a routine that’s comfortable to you.

Here are some items to have on hand:

  • Nursing pillow to support your baby in your kap.
  • Comfortable nuring stool to elevate your feet and ease strain on your back.
  • A large glass of water and a healthy snack.
Help from the experts

As you and your baby get comfortable in your breastfeeding relationship, you may need advice from time to time. Make sure to consult your healthcare professional.

How to hold your baby while nursing

Cradle Hold

  • Sit upright and place your baby on her side across your lap, facing you.
  • Support the baby’s head, back, and bottom with your arm, then move her face near your breast.
  • Brush her mouth or check with your nipple.
  • When the baby begins to suck, make sure she takes enough of your nipple and areola in hermouth to properly latch on.
Food Hold

  • Hold her head and neck in your hand. Let her feet extend toward your back.
  • Use a pillow to support your are and use your free hand to direct the baby’s mouth to yourbreast.
  • Experts advice this position as helpful if you’ve had a cesarean delivery, have large breasts, or ifyou are nursing twins.
Side-Lying Position

  • Lie on your side with your baby oin her sidfe, facing you.
  • Position your baby’s head at your lower breast.
  • When she’s attached to your breast, use your lower arm to support your head. Many hospitalssuggest this position if you’ve has a cesarean section.
Did you know?

As you baby’s appetite increases during growing spurts, your milk volume also increases. Typical growth spurts occur at 10 to 14 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months.

Latching on

The key to successful breastfeeding starts with your baby being able to properly latch on to your breast. Follow these steps to help ensure that your baby latches on correctly and is provided with adequate breast milk:

  • To start, cup your breast with thumb on top and forefinger underneath, and lightly touch thebaby’s lower lip with your nipple. This may be enough to stimulate her rooting reflex, and she’ll turn her head to your nipple, mouth wide open.
  • When the baby opens her mouth wide, draw her in close. If she is latched on correctly, herlower lips curls down. Her mouth should be around the nipplke and as much of the areola as possible. If she’s latched on, you should hear several sucks, a pause, then a swallow.
  • When the baby is properly attached, there’s a strong seal between her mouth and your breast.To release the baby from the breast or to move the baby to the other breast, gently place your finget between her gums to break the sucking action.
Burping baby

From time to time, your baby may swallow small amounts of sir during feeding, and this may cause an uncomfortable bubble in her tummy. To relieve the baby’s discomfort, place her over your shoulder and gently pat or rub her on the backl to release the accumulated air. Try experimenting with different positions such as sitting up or across your lap.

Common breastfeeding issues

Breastfeeding is the most natural way for you to give your baby the best nutrition during her first years of life, Although nature's way is the very best you may experience one or more of the following situations that sometimes occur with breastfeeding, Here are some helpful tips on what to do:

Leaking Milk

Milk leaking from your breast is a normal physical reaction for breastfeeding moms right beore nursing or when your baby cries,

  • Use absorbent nursing pads inside your bra to collect any drips
  • Change padding often
Sore nipples

Vigorous sucking or improper latching on may cause sore or cracked nipples,

  • Try a new position while breastfeeding
  • Air-dry your nipples after feeding your baby or showering
  • Rub your own breastmilk or colostrum around your nipples
  • Wear cotton clothing such as a nursing bra or loose-fitting top
Breast Pain

Tingling in your breasts may occur as your body adjusts to breastfeeding, If you experience tingling only when your baby is nursing, it's a normal sign of your body releasing milk.

  • Use warm or cold compresses on your breasts between feedings
  • If your breast is sore or hot or you experience a fever over 100° F, you may have a breast infection. Contact your doctor
  • If you continue to experience pain after you and your baby are well adjusted to breastfeeding, your doctor may want to check out the symptoms
Breastfeeding’s skin-to-skin touching and close eye contact hely create an intimate mother-child bond.

Slow milk-ejection reflex

This aids in the process of let-down-the release of milk in your breasts.

  • Before your baby begins to nurse, gently massage your breast for stimulation
  • Keep a positive attitude about breastfeeding, and enlist the help and encouragement of family members
  • Stay relaxed and breastfeed your baby in a calm, stress-free environment
Difficulty latching on

Your baby is not properly latched on to your breast during breastfeeding

  • Try different breastfeeding positions to find one that works best
  • Bring your baby’s mouth to your breast
  • Make sure your baby takes the whole areola into her mouth, not just the nipple
Plugged ducts

A small hard lump may form in your breast. It may disappear on its own after a few days

  • Start nursing with that breast first, and encourage your baby to nurse longer on that side
  • Massage the area between feedings
  • Apply a warm, wet cloth before nursing
Engorged breasts

Painful, hard, and swollen breasts result from the accumulation of milk as your breasts adjust to your baby’s needs.

  • Nurse your baby frequently
  • Try a new breastfeeding position
  • Express a little milk if your breast is too full of your baby to latch properly
  • Place a warm, wet cloth on your breasts to soften and ease the pain
  • Between feedings, use cloth-covered cold packs to limit swelling
Did You Know?

Breastfeeding is the best way to ensure a healthy start for both you and your baby. Medical authorities encourage doctors and hospitals to assist new moms in the breastfeeding experience as soon after birth as possible. Here’s an idea of what to expect:

Colostrum

Yellowish, translucent fluid your breasts secrete during the first few days of breastfeeding

  • Contains easy-to-digest proteins, vitamins and minerals
  • Contains antibodies to protect your baby from disease
  • Frequent, short feedings help with your baby’s first bowel movement
Transitional milk

Marks the change from colostrum to regular breast milk in about three days from the onset of breastfeeding

  • As milk comes in, your breasts may become bery full and tender
  • Continue to breastfeed consistently every two to three hours; don’t skip or prolong timebetween feedings. Consistency is important at this time to help your body establish milk production and to synchronize with your baby’s needs
Breast milk

Nature’s most perfect, nutritionally balanced food for your baby’s healthy, natural growth and development

  • Evolves as your baby’s n utritional needs grow
  • Contains more of the fats and proteins needed for energy, weight gain and healthy brain and cell development
  • Is easy for your baby to digest
Did you know?

Breast milk actually changes to keep up with the baby even within the same feeding! As the baby begins a feeding, she gets the high-protein milk necessary for growth. The milk that follows has more of the fat she needs for energy and weight gain

Important Advice For Mothers

Breastfeeding provides the best nutrition and protection from illness for your baby. For most infants, breast milk is all that is needed for the first 6 months. Many mothers continue to breastfeed after 6 months and then give other foods as well. For advice on breastfeeding, consult your doctor or any health professional, or a friend or relative who has successfully breastfed. Frequent feeding is the best was to establish and maintain a good milk supply. A well balanced diet, both during pregnancy and after delivery, also helps sustain an adequate supply of breastmilk.

Remember: breast milk is the best and most economical food for your baby.

Seek advice

The use of foods which are not intended for young babies can be harmful. Unnecessary introduction of partial bottle-feeding or other foods and drinks, will have a negative effect on breastfeeding. Therefore always consult a health professional before introducing anything other than breastmilk.

Using a breast milk substitute

If a doctor or other health professional recommends an infant milk substitutes in addition to breastfeeding or ots replacement during the first 6 months, keep your family circumstances and cost in mind before deciding whether to use infant formula. You will need more than one can (475g) per week if your baby is only bottle-fed. Unboilded water, unboiled bottles or incorrect dilution can make your baby ill. Improper use of infant milk substitute and feeding bottles may have adverse implications on the health of the baby. Always follow instructions exactly. You should be aware of the difficulties in reverting to breast-feeding of infants after a period of feeding by infant milk substitute.

Characteristics of breast milk

  • Immediately after delivery, your breast milk is yellowish and sticky. This milk is called Colostrum which is secreted during the first week of delivery. Colostrum is more nutritious that mature milk because it contains more protein, more anti-infective properties which are of great importance for the infant’s defence against dangerous neo-natal infections. It also contains higher levels of Vitamin ‘A’
  • You must feed Colostrum to your baby as it is rich in many nutrients
  • Do not instead give sugar water, honey water, butter or other concoctions
  • Breast milk is a complete and balanced food and provides all the nutrients needed by ther infantin the first few months of its birth; has anti-infective properties that protect the infant from infections in the early months; is always available and needs no utensils or water (which might carry germs) or fuel for its preparation.
Advantages of breastfeeding

  • Breastfeeding is much cheaper than feeding an infant milk substitutes as the cost of extra food needed by the mother is negligible compared to cost of feeding infant milk substitute
  • Mothers who breastfeed usually have longer periods of infertility after childbirth than non-lactators
  • Breastfeeding immediately after delivery enables the contraction of the womb and helps the mother regain her figure quickly
Management of breastfeeding

  • In order to promoter and support breastfeeding the mother’s natural desire to breast feed should always be encouraged by giving, where needed, practical advice and making sure that she has the support of her relatives
  • Before delivery, remember to tell your doctor you intend to breastfeed
  • You should breastfeed your baby as soon as he is delivered
  • Doctors prefer that you and your infant should stay together immediately after delivery. (This is called “rooming-in”)
  • Let your baby suckle on demand. Breastfeed him whenever he cries.
  • Consult your doctor on adequate care for your breasts and nipples during pregnancy; wash breasts during daily bath with clean water. After breastfeeding, wipe breasts with clean cloth or allow them to dry naturally before dressing
  • Keep your body and clothes and that of your infant always neat and clean.

Important Notice: Mother’s milk is best for your baby. Infant food shall be introduced only after 6 upto 24 months of age.


Eating Smart

breastfeeding diet Eating for You and Your Baby

During lactation your body uses nutrients to make breast milk first before using them for your body. A helthy diet is as important now as when you were pregnant because it must sustain both your baby’s rapid growth and your own health. Both of you need strong bones, energy, and plenty of fluids.

When planning meals, try these tips:

  • Focus on fruits and vegetables, which are packed with many health-enhancing nutrients
  • Think calcium! It’s one of the most important nutrients you need in your diet when you’rebreastfeeding. Moms who are breastfeeding need 1,200 mg a day
  • Drink about 8-10 glasses of water every day. Limit caffeinated drinks, especially during the earlyweeks after your baby is born. Also, avoid alcoholic drinks. Remember that your baby drinks what you drink.
  • Protein is also important. As you breastfeed, you are providing the protein for your baby, somaintaining your protein intake is important. Nutritionists recommend about 65g of protein a day while breastfeeding
  • Consult your doctor before taking medications. If your doctor recommends taking a pain medication, do so immediately after breastfeeding, in order to pass on as little as possible to your baby.
How to tell if your baby is getting enough

A well-nourished baby is a happy baby. However, after birth it may take your baby several days to adjust to breastfeeding and become an alert and lively eater. Be patient.

To awaken a sleepy baby, first change her diaper, then remove a layer of clothing or gently tickle her head or feet. Frequent feeding are best at first, even if you have to wake her every tow to three hours.

Caring for your newborns takes a lot of time and energy, and fatigue commonly contributes to breastfeeding problems. To maintain your baby's nourishment through breastfeeding, you may need to depend on help from your husband, other family members, and friends to keep up with daily chores so you can get the rest you need. When you are rested and healthy, the benefits go directly to your baby. It sometimes makes the difference between a happy baby and fussy one.

Weight gain

Most babies lose some weigh in their first few days but regain it within a week or two. Weight gains is a good indicator of whether your baby’s getting enough to eat:

  • By the fourth or fifth day, babies gain an average of 28 gms a day
  • By the end of the first week, your baby should have at least 6 wet diapers and 2 to 6 bowel movements per 24 hours
  • Most babies double their birth weight at 6 months and triple it at 1 year

If at any time you are concerned abouth your milk production or your baby’s weight, contact your doctor for advice.

Did you know?

Typical nursing time is about 10 minutes on each breast, but don’t set a time limit. Every baby is different - some eat quickly, others take their time. Most babies feed every 2 to 3 hours.


Developmental milestones of a baby

Babies grow in unique ways: The baby who sits up weeks before her peers might be one of the last to learn how to crawl. Or the 18-month-old who's still communicating with grunts and gestures suddenly bursts forth with prepositional phrases at 2 years. That's why we created this series of developmental guides.

Since babies aren't identical — thank goodness! — the guides allow for variations in stages of development. Use them to gain insight into what you're observing in your baby today and to preview what you can look forward to in the months ahead.

To know more about vaccinations click here

child development stages

Baby Care

What kind of clothes should be kept ready for baby at delivery?

A simple vest, cloth nappies or diapers and socks may be required. In cold climate thicker woollen knits maybe required. Additional clothes may be necessary in extremely cold conditions when baby is small and weak.

The baby’s clothes should be made of natural fabric (cotton or wool). Avoid synthetic stuff

  • Babies need proper clothes, which covers them properly especially head, hands andfeet. They should not be over clothed as well
  • Babies pass watery stools after first 3-4 days of life especially after feeding which isnormal for them
  • A baby, who is feeding well, will be passing urine at least 6 times a day
  • Babies don’t need any kajal, surma, talcum powder or daily bath.
  • Vaccination is the most cost-effective way of health for children
Routine use of ready-made napkins

  • Cloth or disposable, you may choose either
  • Cloth diapers: Softer, inexpensive but need to be washed separately with soap and water
  • Disposable diapers: Expensive, comfortable but need frequent change and air drying of groin area
Normal urination pattern of newborn babies

Must pass urine within 48 hours of birth. Normal baby may pass urine every half an hour or only 4-5 times a day during the first few weeks of life. Some babies may cry before passing urine due to discomfort of a full bladder.

Normal stool pattern of neonates

Passes the first stool within 24 hours. The stools are black and tar-like in appearance during the first 2 or 3 days. For the next 1 to 2 days the stools are greenish in color. Later, the stools in a breast fed baby are golden yellow and semiloose in consistency. May pass small amount of stools every time there is passage of wind or soon after every feed. Frequency may be as much as 8-12 stools per day or even more. As long as the stools are not watery, do not contain blood or mucus, the baby is gaining weight and is not otherwise unwell, no treatment is required.

Sometimes newborn babies may pass stools once in 3-4 days. If stools are of normal consistency and appearance, usually there is no cause of concern.




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Frequently Asked Queries (FAQ'S)

Why does a baby have hiccups?

Hiccups and sneezing are common and normal

When should the umbilical stump fall? What care we should take for umbilical cord?

Usually falls anytime between 1 to 2 weeks after birth. Sometimes there is a minimal ooze of blood or secretions, it is normal. Keep this area as clean and dry as possible. Do not cover it with the diaper. Keep the area of umbilical stump clean with spirit.

Why does a baby vomit after feeding?

All babies throw up some amount of curdled milk soon after feeds. Swallowed air is expelled out of the stomach along with the ingested milk. Good burping after each feed will care of this problem.

Is enlargement of baby’s breast a normal phenomenon?

It occurs due to transfer of hormones from the mother to baby through the placenta. Avoid local massage and fomentation. Never try to express the milk. The engorgement spontaneously disappears.

Why does bleeding from vagina or sometimes a white discharge occur after delivery?

Menstrual issues like Vaginal bleeding may occur in some female infant after 3-5 days of birth. The bleeding is mild and lasts for 2-4 days. It does not need any specific treatment except local cleaning. Similarly whitish discharge is from the cervical canal due to withdrawal of hormones.

What is a Cradle cap?

Yellow, oily patches of scaling on your infant’s scalp, is a form of seborrheic dermatitis, also known as cradle cap. It affects many infants from about two weeks to six months of age.

Use a mild baby shampoo regularly. You can very gently remove any loose scales with your fingertip or with a soft baby brush. Do not scrub the area vigorously or try to remove any resistant scales. To loosen, you can apply olive oil or baby oil and allow soaking into the scalp before shampooing. After they are removed do not use oil on the scalp.

Why should we Burp?

In addition to sucking milk, a baby also tends to swallow air. Excess air swallowed by him during his feed, especially while drinking breast milk, is released.

Lay him upright against your shoulder (tummy against your chest), while gently patting him or rubbing his back.

Sometimes why does my baby's diaper contains an orange red streak with urine?

It is not uncommon to have urate crystals in the urine, which have an orange or red, brick dust color, in an infant’s diaper. This is normal.

Should I be worried about blue spots on the buttocks?

These are called Mongolian spots. These spots are flat blue or gray birthmarks on a newborn’s body.

Although most commonly located on a baby’s lower back and buttocks, they can also occur on otherareas of their body. They often fade as a child gets older.

What causes Red pimples on my baby's face?

Baby acne is a common occurrence. Babies usually get whiteheads, blackheads, and pustles on their nose, scalp, cheeks and forehead. Their skin may also appear red and rough. No treatment is usually required as they are self-limiting in 6 months. Vigorous washing and scrubbing and using moisturizers and other creams and lotions, can make baby acne worse. Gentle cleansing with water alone, or a mild soap, is usually the best treatment.

When does descent of testes occur in male babies?

3 to 5 percent of male infants have an undescended testicle when they are born. Many of these will descend on their own by the time a baby is three months old, but after that, there is little chance that they will. This needs to be evaluated by your pediatrician.

What is Neonatal jaundice?

Babies develop yellow tinge over the face and upper part of the trunk starting on day 2nd and 3rd of life. It spontaneously disappears in 10-14 days. If the yellowness appears on the first day itself, or involves the legs, palms or soles, it requires attention. Consult your pediatrician immediately. Phototherapy is the available treatment. In extreme cases blood exchange might be required. Adequate feeding is the only way by which its severity can be decreased. Sun bathing has no role in treatment of neonatal jaundice.

Which is the best position for sleeping for infants?

All infants should be put on the back while sleeping to prevent the risk of choking. Pillows should not be used. Mattress should be firm and not soft. However, parents should encourage tummy time when the baby is awake and under continuous observation.

What is a normal sleeping pattern for newborn babies?

Babies sleep an average of 16 hours a day. Sleeping patterns will evolve only after the child in one year old. It is normal for a baby to stay awake at nights and sleep more during daytime for initial couple of months. It’s perfectly okay to start the fan or even the AC if it is too hot

Why is an intramuscular injection of vitamin given at birth?

Vitamin K is administered within two hours of life to each baby to prevent bleeding disorders. It is given universally and is harmless.

How often should the baby be feed?

Give feeds on a semi-demand schedule. It means that the feeds are offered as many times as demanded by the baby. Baby should be put on the breast if more that 3-4 hours have elapsed since the last feed.

If there is enough mother's milk, there is absolutely no need for any kind of top feed for a normal full term baby

What is the best way to bathe a baby?

There is no need to vigorously remove the whitish substance called vernix on the baby's skin immediately after birth as this forms a protective coating for the baby. For first one or two days, only sponging is required. Take cotton or soft cloth and rinse it in lukewarm water. Please ask your pediatrician about choice of soap.

What is the best way to massage a baby?

Massage helps the baby to relax and stimulates him. Coconut, olive or any vegetable oil can be used. Avoid mustard oil as it is irritating. After the bath, it is advisable to use some baby oil or moisturizer.

What is the soft spot on the top of my baby's head?

This is because the bones of the skull have not joined completely. It is called Fontanelle and will unite gradually, by the time your baby is 9 to 18 months old.

What is Colic?

It is because of swallowed air during feeds and inadequate burping. The air passes from the stomach into the intestine, giving rise to pain and discomfort. This results in colic. For relief, hold the baby in the ‘burping’ position. Do not give any kind of medication (including gripe water) until you consult your doctor.

How do I care for my baby?

Talking and touching your baby helps in bonding. The newborn’s fingernails should be trimmed/filed after cleaning with spirit about once a week, and this toenails once a month, to prevent him from scratching himself and others. Depending on the climate, open a few windows in the room or take the baby for a small stroll. However, avoid taking the child to a crowded place. Do not give or allow anyone to give the baby any drinks from outside. Also, avoid travelling with the child for at least three months.

Why do some babies have a persistent flow of tears from their eyes?

Gently massage over the inner angle of the eye near its junction with the nose two to three times a day, this helps in opening of blockage of a duct connecting the nose and eyes. If the problem persists please consult an Eye Specialist.

What is the normal body temperature in babies?

It ranges from 36.5 degree C to 38 degree C. The bulb of thermometer should be placed vertically in axilla, so that it is between arm and chest wall. Keep the thermometer for at least 3 minutes. There is no need to add 1 degree C in this temperature. Never place thermometer in the mouth of a baby.

What is the optimal room temperature for babies?

The mother should feel slight warmth but not discomfort. Heater/blower/air conditioner can be switched on, with keeping in mind that the room should be comfortably warm for parents. If room thermometer is available, environmental temperature around 26 degree C is advisable for term, healthy neonates.

How much water can I give to my baby?

Breast milk contains 97% water and it is sufficient for babies. No water is required till 6 months of age.

What is the expected weight gain in babies?

Neonates lost 5-10 % of birth weight during first week of life and regain their birth weight by 7-10 days. Afterwards they gain approximately 25-30 grams per day that means near about 900g in one month till one month. Their weight is doubled by 5 months of age and by one year it’s three times of birth weight.

What is the role of vitamins and tonics for newborn babies?

Routine supplementation of babies with vitamins and tonics is unnecessary except for special circumstances e.g.premature or low birth weight babies (less than 1.8 kg birth weight)

  • Massaging your baby - Baby massage is gentle, rhythmic stroking of your baby's body withyour hands. You can use oils or a moisturiser to help your hands to glide smoothly over your baby's skin. As part of your massage routine, you can gently manipulate your baby's ankles, wrists and fingers. You can talk softly, hum or sing to your baby while you are massaging, which may make it more reassuring for your baby.
  • Bathing your baby - Make sure the bath water is comfortably warm, but not hot, beforeputting your baby in. Put cold water in the bath first, and then add the hot water. Even though her bath may be warm, your baby can quickly lose body heat once you take her out of the water, so keep the room warm. When you lift your baby out of the bath, wrap her in a hooded towel and pat her dry before putting her nappy on. Then wrap your baby in a dry towel or blanket again, and give her a cuddle for about 10 minutes to keep her warm, before dressing her. Never leave your baby unattended in the bath.
  • Caring for your baby’s teeth - Start cleaning your baby's teeth twice a day as soonsee his first little tooth bud emerging. If you start early, your baby will get used to having his teeth cleaned. Your baby's first tooth will most likely be a bottom front one, appearing when he's about six months old. However, the time a baby's first tooth appears can vary hugely. A few babies are born with a tooth through already! Others still have no teeth by the time they're one. Your baby will eventually have 20 milk teeth, all of which should be through by the time he is about two-and-a-half years old. It may seem a long way off now, but it's best to carry on brushing your child's teeth for him until he's at least seven. By that age, he should be able to do it properly for himself.

Weaning and Feeding

Weaning advice

Start at approx. 6 month, if the child is exclusively breastfeeding till that time, but one could start anytime between 4-6 months if not predominantly breastfeeding

child health record
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mama feeding baby


Start with one food per week and keep giving the same food for a week so that the baby develops the taste for food. After one week if he likes, continue the food and add a new one and if he does not then discontinue and add a new one.

Start with 3-4 teaspoons and gradually build to 8-10 tsp by end of one week

Frequency of feeding

4-6 months – 1-2 times, 6-8 months – 2-3 times, 8-10 months – 3-4 times, 10-12 months 4-5 times a day cereal based diet and milk should reduce to 2-3 times per day

Things which need to be avoided – cow's milk as a staple diet, salt, honey which should be given after one year of age


Oral Hygiene Practices

  • Cleaning of gum pads
    • Before eruption of teeth, gum pads should be cleaned with a clean gauze piece wrapped on index fingers
    • Clean gum pads twice a day or preferably after every feed
oral hygiene images


  • Use of toothbrush
    • Begin using the toothbrush as soon as the first tooth erupts in the oral cavity
    • Use toothbrush with soft nylon bristles
    • Small toothbrush with small head size
    • Parents should brush their children’s teeth till the age of 6 years
  • Use of toothpaste
    • Use non-fluoride toothpaste till the age of 3 yrs
    • Use kid’s toothpaste (with 500 ppm of fluoride) in age group of 3-5 yrs
    • Use fluoridated toothpaste (950-1000 ppm of fluoride) after 5 yrs
    • Use only pea sized amount of toothpaste or just smear the toothbrush with toothpaste
oral health child care


  • Oral Hygiene of parents
    • Parents and other family members should ensure healthy oral cavity before the child is born
    • Avoid sharing of spoons to prevent transmission of bacteria
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Guidelines for parents for common childhood problems

Diarrhea

  • Viral infection is the most cause in children
  • Antibiotics are often not necessary for the treatment and their use can result in increase in the duration of diarrhea
  • Oral rehydration therapy is required for maintaining hydration in children and should be offered for stool or vomiting related losses on volume to volume basis
  • Zinc has beneficial effect in treatment of diarrhea and can be given for 14 days
  • There is no rationale for giving rest to the bowel. Feeding during diarrhea results in faster recovery
  • Seek medical help in following situations
    • Blood in stools
    • Sunken eyes, depressed sensorium and not passes urine for 8 hours
    • Volume of stool loss is more than what can be replaced orally
    • Persistent vomiting
Common cold

  • Most common illness in the childhood with an average 6-8 episodes in one year lasting up to 14 days
  • Humidified air may improve symptoms of nasal congestion and runny nose. For infants, parents can try saline nose drops to thin the musus, followed by bulb suction to temporarily remove nasal secretions
  • Encourage child to drink adequate amount of fluids
  • Antibiotics are not effective in treating colds. Their frequent use in such situation is likely to result in resistance and tendency to have allergies later in life.
  • Use hand hygiene measures to prevent household spread of the disease
  • Seek medical help in case of
    • Ear pain or discharge
    • Rapid breathing
    • Alteration in sensorium
Fever

  • Usually caused by infection but height of fever is not a differentiating point between viral and bacterial
  • Fever should be treated if the fever is causing discomfort
  • Always use a thermometer to record the temperature
  • Rectal temperature is best but rarely used in clinical practice but reasonable information can begathered by use of thermometer in axilla. While using the thermometer in axilla one should always be keeping the tip of thermometer in the roof of axilla and measure for three minutes
  • Most effective way to reduce the temperature is to use paracetamol @ 15 mg/kg but not morethan 5 doses in a day
  • Keep the clothes loose, ambient temperature not too high, gives plenty of water and rest to thechild if possible. Do not cover the child too much
  • When to seek medical help in case of fever
    • Infants who are less than three months of age who have a rectal temp[erature of 100.4degree F (38 degree C) or greater
    • Children who are three months to three years who have a rectal temperature of 100.4degree F (38 degree C) or greater for more than three days or who appear ill
    • Children who are 3 to 36 months who have a rectal temperature of 102 degree F (38.9degree C) or greater
    • Children of any age whose oral, rectal, tympanic membrane, or forehead temperature is104 degree F (40 degree C) or greater or whose axillary temperature is 103 degree F (39.4 degree C) or greater
    • Children of any age who have a febrile seizure. Febrile seizures are convulsions thatoccur when a child (between six months and six years of age) has a temperature greater than 100.4 degree F (38 degree C)
    • Children of any age who have a fever and have a chronic medical problem such as heartdisease or a new onset rash
    • Children who appear sick
In diarrhea, cold or fever continue breastfeeding you child.
home remedies for fever in children




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diarrhea in kids home remedies



Support from the spouse:

Since the woman goes through the birthing process it is only natural that the man feels left out. Take the initiative to involve the father through all stages of the baby so that he feels involved and close instead of left-out and neglected. It will also help the mother get some much needed rest and relaxation to let the father help out in taking care of the baby.

The father of the new born should also be considerate about the fact that the woman has gonethrough several emotional and physical changes and needs all the time and help to re-coop.

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K.M SPECIALITY HOSPITAL &
Bloom – Centre for Woman & Child Wellness

No. 453/454, R.K. Shanmugam Salai, K.K. Nagar,
Chennai - 600 078